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California Community Property and Transmutation Agreements pt. 2

Common Factors Associated with and Impacting the Viability of Transmutation Agreements


Undue Influence

Spouses have a fiduciary duty to each other. This means they're obligated to act in each other's best financial interests and avoid taking advantage. If one spouse pressures the other into signing a transmutation agreement, especially if it heavily favors the pressuring spouse, a court might find the agreement invalid due to undue influence. 2 This pressure can be emotional, financial, or even physical. Some examples of undue influence in transmutation might include threatening to withhold affection or end the relationship if the spouse doesn't sign; isolating the spouse from friends or family to make them more dependent; presenting a complicated agreement with legal jargon; rushing the spouse to sign without proper explanation; and taking advantage of a spouse's mental or emotional vulnerability. The court will additionally consider factors such as any history of coercion or manipulation by the pressuring spouse. 3 It is important to emphasize that spouses may be classified as “vulnerable” who are elderly, disabled, or who have recently undergone a major life event (like childbirth) because they may be more susceptible to undue influence.

 

Hidden Debts

Transmutation can be used to hide debts from creditors. For example, a spouse might convert community property to their separate property to avoid the debt being divided in a bankruptcy or lawsuit.  California law allows courts to unwind such transactions in some cases. 4 California courts can trace the origins of assets to determine if they were truly separate property before the transmutation. If they originated from community property funds, the court might unwind the transmutation and treat the asset (and any associated debts) as community property again. If there's clear evidence a spouse intended to defraud creditors or the other spouse through transmutation, the court can disregard the agreement entirely.

 

Unequal Distribution in Divorce

Since community property is generally divided equally in a divorce, transmutation can be used to unfairly benefit one spouse.  For example, a spouse might convert a valuable asset to their separate property before divorce, leaving the other spouse with less.  California courts will consider the circumstances surrounding the transmutation and may not honor it if it seems like an attempt to cheat the other spouse out of their rightful share. 5

 

Courts will scrutinize transmutation agreements, especially close to divorce proceedings. They'll consider the timing, purpose, and overall fairness of the agreement in the context of the divorce. If the court finds the transmutation was primarily motivated by manipulating the property division in divorce and unfairly benefiting one spouse, they might set the agreement aside. 6  In such cases, the asset would likely be treated as community property again and divided equally.

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